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Timing is Everything!

Don’t get ‘Amped” up on High Output Alternators

1 wire Alternator

Don’t get ‘Amped” up on High Output Alternators

5 Things You Should Know Before Using a High-Output Alternator

1 wire Alternator


So you’re considering swapping out your stock alternator.

There are plenty of good reasons to make the leap to a high-output alternator, but you’ll need to do a little bit of homework first. Luckily, we’ve got smart friends to help us with our studies, so you can ace the topic. In conjunction with the alternator experts at Powermaster and MSD, we’ve compiled the five things you need to know before upgrading to a high-amp, or high-output alternator.

This starts with the most basic of questions:

Do You Really Need a High-Output Alternator?

If you’ve got a basic, stock vehicle, chances are you don’t need a high-output alternator. Most factory alternators are rated at 65 to 100 amps and are capable of handling your vehicle’s basic necessities, such as headlights, gauges, fuel pumps, A/C, etc. These alternators also typically come with a 10 to 15 percent reserve to handle additional accessories.

However, many of our readers don’t have a stock vehicle. For example, you may have a custom-built street rod with a unique combination of accessories. Or you may have a high-end stereo system or a race vehicle with an array of on-board electronics. As the electrical load of all these accessories add up, you may find yourself in need of a higher-amperage alternator.

But how do you know?

There are a few ways to figure out whether you need to upgrade your alternator. A few telltale signs are dim headlights, poor stereo system performance, or an alternator that simply wears out quickly. You can also check your electrical load using an ammeter. Simply connect the ammeter in series with the battery’s ground terminal (with the engine turned off), switch each electrical component on and off, and note their amperage draws. Add up the total electrical draw and compare with your alternator’s rated output. The output should be 50 percent greater than the draw.

One final way to estimate your vehicle’s electrical load is to check the accessory fuses. The amp ratings, although slightly higher than the highest draw of each component, will give you a good estimate of your vehicle’s electrical load.

What Amperage Do You Need?

That depends on the current draw, along with any future accessories you plan to add. For that reason, we’ve supplied a list of some common accessories and their amp draw:

Accessory: Amp Draw:
Air Conditioner 20-21
Audio Power Amplifiers 10-70
Back-up Lamps 3-4
Cigarette Lighter 10-12
CD/Tuner with amp 7-14
CD/Player/Tuner without amp 2.5-5
Clock 0.3
Dome Light 1-2
Electric Cooling Fans 6-15
Head Lamp Dimmer 2
Head Lamp (Low Beam) 8-10
Head Lamp (High Beam) 13-15
Heater Defroster 6-15
Horn 10-20
Ignition 1.5-4
Ignition (Racing) 8-36
Instrument Panel 0.7-1.5
Lamp, Gauges 1.5-3.5
Lamps, License Plate 1.5-2
Lamps, Parking 1.5-2
Lamps, Side Marker 1.3-3
Lamps, Tail 5-7
Nitrous Oxide Solenoid 5-8
Power Windows Defroster 1-30
Power Seats 25-50
Power Windows 20-30
Power Antenna 6-10
Pumps, Electric Fuel 3-8
Starter Solenoid 10-12
Voltage Regulators (1 Wire) 0.3-0.5

How Much is Too Much?

You can never have too much amperage when it comes to alternators; therefore, you never have to worry about choosing an alternator with too high of a rated output. Here’s why:

Amperage is basically the amount of electrical current your alternator can supply. And it basically operates off of supply and demand. That is, your alternator will only supply the amount of amperage a particular component demands—and no more. So high-output alternators will not harm your components or charging system, no matter how high you go with the amps.

What Gauge Wire Do You Need?

8 Gauge Wire

A performance alternator really doesn’t require much in the way of modifications. However, Powermaster and other alternator manufacturers do recommend you replace both the ground straps and charge wire. Keep in mind the factory cables weren’t designed to handle the juice of a higher-output alternator, and can restrict the flow of electricity.

In the case of the charge wire, you really can’t go too large. However, here is a chart that matches cable gauge size to total amperage:

Amps Up to 4′ 4′-7′ 7′-10′ 10′-13′ 13′-16′ 16′-19′ 19′-22′ 22′-28′
0-20 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8
20-35 12 10 8 8 8 6 6 4
35-50 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 4
50-65 8 8 6 4 4 4 4 2
65-85 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 0
85-105 6 6 4 2 2 2 2 0
105-125 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 0
125-150 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0

What is Pulley Ratio (and Why Should You Care)?

In short, pulley ratio is a comparison between the crankshaft pulley diameter and alternator pulley diameter. This ratio is derived by dividing the crank pulley diameter by the alternator pulley. For example, a 6-inch crank pulley with 2-inch alternator pulley will yield a 3:1 pulley ratio.

The ratio has a direct effect on how fast the alternator spins.

In order to understand the importance of pulley ratio, you first need to understand the “power curve” involved with alternator output. Although the alternator’s output is dependent upon engine speed, it follows a unique curve. At idle, small changes in the alternator’s speed can make a big difference, so the pulley ratio becomes very important.

Powermaster supplies its alternators with pulleys matched to the alternator’s power curve. The company follows this common rule of thumb:

  • Street use = 3:1 ratio or slightly higher
  • Drag racing = 1.75:1 ratio
  • Circle track = 1:1 ratio

So why should you care?

Because differing ratios can affect performance, you should take care to maintain the same pulley ratio if you decide to use dress-up pulley sets. A mismatched pulley ratio and alternator can lead to big problems, especially at idle where alternator performance is critical. That’s because these high-amp units typically lose output under 2,400 rotor rpm. Rotor rpm are a factor of pulley ratio multiplied by engine speed. So, if you have a pulley ratio of 2:1 multiplied by an engine speed of 870, you’ll get a rotor rpm of 1,827.

At 1,827 rpm, you’ll see a significant drop in alternator output.

Again, the ideal ratio depends on your application (street, drag racing, circle track racing), but you need to understand the effects of altering pulley ratio.

With all this in mind, you’re ready to choose the right alternator for your application.

Article Courtesy of David Fuller

Oil Viscosity – The Thick & Thin of it All

Oil viscosity scale high to low

Oil Viscosity – The Thick & Thin of it All

Engine Oil – Viscosity

What is Viscosity?

In a nut shell, it’s how easily the oil pours. It’s a simple measurement of “thickness”, “pour-ability”, or “weight”. Pour an ounce of water from a glass. Now pour an ounce of maple syrup. The maple syrup has a greater viscosity than water. Simple, right?

There are various ways to measure viscosity. And the charts are different for different kinds of lubricants. You can’t compare motor oil to gear oil, it’s a different scale.

As you know, fluids pour differently and various temps. To standardize things, it’s generally agreed that lubricant viscosity will be measured at 40*C(100*F) and 100*C (212*F).

Oil Viscosity Scale

If you look at the SAE viscosity charts, you’ll see that a certain viscosity of engine oil can actually cover a large range of actual kinemetic viscosities. A 20 weight oil ranges from 35 to 75 on the kinematic scale.

Winter Weight


It’s a measurement of how well the oil flows when the engine is first started. That’s when a large amount of engine wear occurs – when the engine is cold, the parts are moving, and all the oil is in the oil pan, not doing any good. The thicker the oil is, the harder it is to get moving, and the longer it takes. Which means more wear is occurring. That’s especially bad on a high pressure valve train.

5W doesn’t mean the oil will have a viscosity of 5. It means that it will pour like a 5 weight oil that has been cooled to 32*F. Again, there’s that standard for measurement.

Also, remember that the viscosity is not 5 or 40, it’s a range between them, mostly dependent on temperature. Many engineers argue that you should use the lowest cold viscosity you can find. Even if the oil temp is 65*F when you turn the crank, that lower viscosity will lubricate the engine that much faster.


What Do I Need?

Again, it depends on what you’re doing. Generally speaking, you need enough viscosity to maintain proper oil pressure in all situations. More viscosity is not always better. Thicker oil requires more energy to move around, moves a little slower, and puts more strain on those moving parts because of the higher energy requirements. If you make good oil pressure with a 30 weight oil, changing to a 50 or 60 weight oil is detrimental to your engine.

There are some excellent spintron studies that show a 40 weight oil is better at stabilizing the valve train at high RPM’s. For racing, Most use 5W-40. For my street cars, or 0W-30; Unless you’re racing in really high heat situations – like desert truck racing – there’s really no need to go more than that.   Some Newer vehicles engineers setup clearances that less oil pressure for better gas mileage.

5.2 Aluminator XS Engine. What makes it Go – Faster!

5.2 Aluminator XS Engine. What makes it Go – Faster!

The 2015-2016 5.0 Coyote is impressive by itself but fast is never fast enough!! 2017  Mustang GT features  the Aluminator crate engine series, the 5.2-liter Aluminator XS. Capable of producing  570+ horsepower, the 5.2L Aluminator XS offers an aftermarket option for  enthusiasts looking for enhanced powertrain options.


How does the 5.2L Aluminator XS differ from the engine in the GT350?  

Significantly. The Aluminator 5.2L XS combines all of the FPP highest-performing Coyote engine parts built since 2011 into one package:

  • Ford Performance Parts Cobra Jet 5.0L 4V intake manifold Engineered for the mustang cobra jet drag car  allows for an additional 20-25hp @ 8000 RPM
  • Ford Performance Parts 65-mm Cobra Jet billet aluminum throttle body M-9926-CJ65 – Dual 65mm throttle body that allows better flow over 5.0L or 5.2L throttle bodies
  • Ford Performance Parts fully CNC ported 5.2 cylinder heads with custom high lift (5.0L firing order) camshafts to allow better flow and correct timing for a cross plane crankshaft
  • High-performance timing chain tensioners
  • Custom H-beam connecting rods & forged crankshaft – a cross-plane crankshaft is used to keep GT350 exclusive with the flat-plane crankshaft
  • Includes 200 amp alternator

.What do you see the intended use of this engine for Mustang enthusiasts?

This engine can be used as a crate engine in high-end resto-mod builds or used as an engine upgrade for customers building track-day cars.

How did Ford  go about developing the 5.2L Aluminator XS?

FPP engineers made slight modifications to work with the cross-plane crank.  As a result, the Aluminator XS is a capable, high-revving. One thing we set out to do with the new Aluminator was keep the flat-plane crankshaft exclusive to GT350. Doing that meant integrating a cross-plane crankshaft which was a challenge because it changes the firing order which impacts valve timing.



Maximum Coyote Crate – 570+ Horsepower

  • 5.2L – 317 cubic inches
  • 12:1 compression ratio (nominal)
  • Ford Performance 5.2L GT350 aluminum block
  • Mahle® hard anodized forged pistons with low friction coating
  • Manley® H-beam connecting rods with ARP2000 bolts
  • Lightweight aluminum cylinder block features cross-bolted main bearing caps
  • Camshafts Camshaft kit – M-6550-M52A
  • M-6675-M50BR 12 quart rear sump oil pan features optimized oil drain back and windage tray to control oil and improve high-rpm performance
  • M-6600-50CJ High Performance oil pump with billet steel gears
  • M-9424-M50CJ Cobra Jet tuned intake manifold
  • M-9926-CJ65 dual bore throttle body
  • M-9593-LU47 47 lb. fuel injectors
  • Ford Performance GT350 fully CNC ported aluminum heads M-6049-M52 & M-6050-M52
  • M-12A227-CJ13 high RPM pulse ring
  • M-8600-M50BALT alternator and mount kit
  • M-6P067-M50BK black coil covers
  • M-12405-M50A heat range zero (0) spark plugs
  • M-6731-FL820 oil filter


Flat Out: Inside the Shelby GT350 Mustang’s Engine

On the outside it may look like your garden variety 5.0-liter Coyote V8 found in the engine bay of a Mustang GT or F-150, but appearances can be deceiving. “This is a new engine top to bottom,” said Eric Ladner, engine program supervisor at Ford. The list of changes and enhancements compared to the standard five-oh are exhaustive.


And as you’ve no doubt heard, the most important update of all is the crankshaft. Engineers eschewed a traditional cross-plane arrangement for one that’s flat. Rather than having the throws arranged at 90-degree intervals the Shelby GT350’s are set 180-degrees apart. Flat-plane cranks are common in supercars like Ferraris where maximum performance is a top concern but this is the first time Ford’s ever offered one and they’ve been mass-producing V8s for more than eight decades, ever since old Henry’s first flathead rolled out of the Rouge foundry in 1932.

Ladner said, “Flat-plane cranks are inherently lighter than their cross-plane counterparts.” This is because bulky counterweights are not required to balance them. But he also cautioned that crankshafts account for less than 15 percent of an engine’s rotating mass, so this is hardly their only benefit.

Beyond all of this, they “[allow] all the cylinders breathe the same,” said Christian, which makes tuning the engine much easier so they can run it closer to the ragged edge and get more power. Additionally, the Shelby GT350’s crank is made from forged steel for extra strength and it’s been “gun-drilled,” meaning holes have been punched through each of its throws to further cut mass. These openings also allow the adjacent bays inside the block to breathe together, further reducing parasitic drag.

Bored and Stoked Another major change compared to other Coyote V8s is this powerplant’s internal dimensions. Giving it that extra 0.2-liters of lung capacity is a larger bore and longer stroke. The 5.2’s digits clock in at 94 millimeters by 93 millimeters, respectively. If you’re curious, a regular 5.0-liter measures 92.2 by 92.7.


Instead of traditional cylinder liners that are either pressed or cast into place the Shelby’s engine uses a plasma transferred wire-arc technology, which saves a significant amount of mass. Additionally its block is unique to this application but the bore spacing and deck height are identical to a five-oh so the same machine tools can be used. The GT350’s engines will be assembled on Ford’s niche line in Romeo, Michigan; standard Coyotes are built in Windsor, Ontario.

These rotating components squeeze incoming air and fuel with a frighteningly high 12-to-1 compression ratio and apparently that’s ok. Thanks to exhaustive computer modeling the engine runs just fine on 93 octane pump gas and it doesn’t even have direct injection. According to Ladner this feature “wasn’t necessary to meet our performance targets,” plus DI systems are heavier and add cost.

Moving into the basement, this engine features a composite oil pan that saves more weight, about 20 percent in fact. But it’s hardly just a sump; it also contains an integrated pickup and windage tray, all in one unit. A higher-capacity oil pump ensures there’s plenty of lubrication at all times.

Breathe Deeply

Taking an elevator ride topside, the Shelby engine breathes through an 87-millimeter throttle-body, the largest Ford’s ever fitted, as well as an open-element air filter. Beyond this there’s an all-new intake manifold. Its runners are both longer and larger in diameter than the ones found in the dearly departed Boss 302. This configuration bolsters torque production across the rev range and all told, 90 percent of peak twist is available at just 3,450 RPM.

The cylinder heads are where all the magic happens in modern engines and the 5.2-liter V8’s have received special attention. For starters they’ve been strategically lightened and weigh about 6 percent less than the ones that cap off a standard Coyote block. Beyond this, the engine’s enlarged bores allowed for even bigger valves to help get copious amounts of fuel and air into the cylinders and speedily evacuate spent exhaust gasses once the mixture’s gone off.

Overall this engine is lighter than the 5.0-liter V8 on which it’s based and it puts out A LOT more power. And despite spinning beyond 8,000 RPM it has to meet the same durability requirements as any other Ford product. Accordingly it will be backed by the same warranty, so don’t be afraid to tickle that redline.

Early Bronco coyote Swap

Early Bronco coyote Swap

Dropping a Coyote  Engine into a Vintage Bronco

What do you do when you have a vintage Bronco and want stronger V-8 power? You probably look to Mustang engines. But what if you already have a hot rod pony powerplant and want more?


Perhaps a Coyote crate engine . This “Aluminator” engine is a 5.0L Four-Valve unit with an 11:1 compression ratio and comes complete with a manual transmission engine injector harness. Lamb Fab pulled the existing engine and started working to fit the wider, modular Ford V-8 under the hood. The work required modifications to the fenderwells, front cowl, steering shaft, and front driveshaft along will all the other usual changes that have to be made when a different engine is swapped in.  Front Runner Pulley system

For this swap, the Coyote engine was mated to a six-speed auto. This in turn was adapted to the existing Dana 20 transfer case that has a twin-stick shifter setup.


Follow along as we detail some of the tasks needed to complete this swap. The results are impressive to say the least. With 435-plus horsepower on tap, there are plenty of ponies to make this Bronco move rapidly. With backing of the six-speed, the engine is always in powerband and drivability is awesome, especially when compared to the older three-speed C4 auto it had previously. It is supersmooth now.

The complete powertrain is temporarily assembled for test fitting. It is a clean setup adapting modern to vintage for this classic Ford. The six-speed auto transmission In the final configuration, driveshaft lengths were unchanged. However, some mods were made to the front driveshaft to clear the larger transmission. No CV joint was used, but high-angle U-joints were needed.

An adapter  was sourced to mate the modern auto transmission to the Dana 20 that was already in the Bronco. Multiple bolt holes on the adapter allow for numerous clocking configurations to place the t-case at almost any angle relative to the transmission.

To best mate the engine to the Bronco framerails and make moving the engine in and out easier, an engine cradle were fabbed under the oil pan that bolts to full-metal engine mount plates using urethane bushings. The cradle then sits in a set of pocket brackets on the framerails. Determining the final engine placement took some time to ensure that the hood, radiator, and firewall clearances were maintained.


Ford Racing headers were used but modified a bit to fit around the inner fenders and steering shaft.  Cut off and reworked some of the tubes as needed.


The Coyote engine computer itself monitors water temperature and oil pressure.  Autometer gauges used in dash. The mechanical water temp sensor was plumbed into one of the heater ports on the new engine.

Since the Coyote engine was primarily designed for late-model Mustangs that use electric power steering, no steering pump is provided on the engine. Use of a Vintage Air Front Runner Setup includes the Power Steering Pump.

As work progressed, the engine was placed in and pulled out of the engine bay a number of times for fit checks. The Coyote engine is a good bit wider across the cylinder heads than the older 302 V-8 it replaces.The Bronco uses a 1980s Ford 2WD steering box and a Borgeson shaft. The position of the Ididit steering column had to be modified, as did the inner fender panel in order to push the steering shaft a bit more to the driver side to clear the wider engine. You can also see the beginning of a frame mount to capture the engine cradle

The shop fabricated this simple, high-clearance mount for the adapter at the end of the transmission. It mates with two pairs of tabs on the inner framerails and attaches with two bolts.

Coyote 5.0 Bronco Engine Swap Radiator

The radiator is from a late-model Thunderbird; it is very slim and packaged well. The Coyote engines are quite thermally efficient, so very large volumes of coolant aren’t needed. A 60-plus-psi inline electric pump was installed along the framerail to feed fuel to the new engine.

 Coyote 5.0 Bronco Engine Swap Radiator Filler Hoses Neck

The radiator is a closed-style, having no top radiator cap. An inline radiator fill assembly was used, simply spliced into the upper radiator hose. Hoses are late-model Mustang pieces. All hoses were secured with heat-shrink hose clamps.

Coyote 5.0l Bronco Engine Swap Radiator Steam Line

These modern motors usually require a cooling system steam line. In this case it was run with a rubber hose to a connection at the top of the radiator. This radiator also had an integrated cooler for the transmission fluid with inlet and outlet connections.

Coyote 5.0l Bronco Engine Swap Transmission Lines

A set of factory Ford steel fluid lines was mated to the automatic transmission and routed forward. They were cut off just forward of the crank pulley, and compression fittings were used to adapt to rubber lines leading to the cooler integrated in the radiator. Also tucked up on the bottom side of the engine is an OEM Ford starter. Wiring was straightforward, and the existing Bronco connections were all used on the new starter.

Coyote 5.0l Bronco Engine Swap Power Steering Reservoir

A remote power steering reservoir from a late-model Mustang was mounted up near the cowl on the passenger side along with a small cooler for the steering system. Low- and high-pressure pump lines were custom fabricated and run from the pump on the passenger side to the steering box on the driver side.

 Coyote 5.0 Bronco Engine Swap Shifter

auto shifter from the 2013 F-150 that’s designed to work with the six-speed transmission. Functions include manual tap-shift capability and tow/haul mode selection. The shop fabricated a metal console to mount and house the shifter, then had it covered in bedliner material to match the interior floor of the Bronco.

Coyote 5.0 Bronco Engine Swap Transfer Case Shifter

The transfer case shifter assembly was custom fabricated. The shifter mount is bolted to a tab point on the new transmission.

Coyote 5.0l Bronco Engine Swap Accelerator Pedal

The Coyote engine control uses signals from a drive-by-wire throttle assembly so no mechanical throttle cable routing is necessary. Installed an accelerator pedal assembly from a 2013 F-150.

 5.0 Coyote Bronco Engine Swap Battery Computer Harness Fuse Box

A Ford Racing engine harness was used along with the engine computer. It was programmed  and sits on the passenger-side wheelwell just ahead of the battery. These units are designed to survive heat and vibration under the hood, so mounting here is no problem. A Bussman fuse box on the inner fender provides overcurrent protection and cleans up the power supply wiring.

5.0l Coyote Bronco Engine Swap Radiator Cowl Photo

Along with using the slim radiator with the new engine, cut out much of the original cowl.  then bridged the area with a new crossmember that preserves the strength but is much more compact.

5.0 Coyote Bronco Engine Swap

The air intake was put together from generic air intake fittings, and a large Spectre open element filter was isolated in a cold air box. The finished engine swap looks superclean sitting in the Bronco. It fits, but there’s very little leftover airspace under the hood.


Lamb Fab


Supercharger Basics

Supercharger Basics

The development of supercharging has a long history, with surprisingly diverse applications. In 1860, the Roots brothers developed an air pump with a pair of meshing lobes for use in blast furnaces, and this type of blower found its way onto an engine designed by Gottlieb Daimler in 1900, making it the oldest of the various superchargers available.
Later on, veterans returning from WWII were inspired by the superchargers on fighter planes to hop up their hot rods. Today, this type of forced induction is now a staple of the performance aftermarket. There’s no quicker way to pull big power out of an engine than bolting on a blower. Gains of 30 to 50 percent and even more are not unusual, depending on the fuel delivery, octane and intercooling systems.
The principle behind supercharging is fairly simple: use a belt-driven pump to push more air into the cylinders so the engine can burn more fuel and generate more power. The devil’s in the details, though, since superchargers come in a variety of sizes and configurations. They also often require modifications to the intake, fuel and cooling systems, along with reprogramming the engine computer.
The basic types of blowers are Roots, twin-screw and centrifugal. As noted above, the Roots pulls air through a pair of meshing lobes (as does the twin-screw, but in a different configuration). While traditionally thought of as the least fuel-efficient type, the Roots has been refined by Eaton Corporation by using three- or four-lobe rotors, among other changes.

Roots Supercharger
These include twisting each rotor 60 degrees to form a helix, along with improved geometry for the inlet and outlet ports, reducing pressure variations, resulting in a smoother discharge of air for higher efficiency over traditional Roots superchargers.
The twin-screw type, offered by both Kenne Bell and Whipple, might look visually similar to the Roots type (both are usually mounted on top of the intake manifold), and is also a positive displacement unit (the amount of airflow pumped per rpm is fixed), but the internals are significantly different.
Using “male” and “female” rotors that turn in opposite directions, the twin-screw compresses the air between the rotors (rather than around the rotors, next to the blower case). The advantages of this design, Kenne Bell notes, include less turbulence, heat and friction, along with higher boost levels.

Kenney Belle SC

Kenne Bell introduced the twin-screw concept to Ford Mustangs in 1990, and employs it on a number of other engines, including both the GM LS V8s and the Chrysler Hemi. As mentioned, it’s a positive displacement design that produces the same cfm output and boost at any rpm — not just peak rpm. The 10 psi kit for the 2011 to ’14 Mustang GT increases power by 225 to 250 hp (approximately 20 hp/psi boost), depending on fuel octane (91 or 93).
Supercharger displacement choices are not limited to the smaller 2.3 OEM rotors. The much larger and powerful twin-screw sizes of 2.8, 3, 3.2, 3.6, 4.2 and 4.7 liters cover a power range of 725 to 1,800 hp. All superchargers utilize the same exclusive 4×6 lobe rotor concept that holds all those horsepower and track records.
The twin screw’s big, fat torque curve in the low and middle range, coupled to maximum peak horsepower and rpm, are the main reasons why the twin-screw concept has become so popular with both the aftermarket and OEMs.
In addition, to minimize supercharger inlet and boost restriction, Kenne Bell utilizes the industry’s largest throttle body (168 mm) and inlet system. This feature alone is worth 30 to 50 hp, the company claims. Also, the cooler air charge and patented Liquid Cooling ensure the lowest possible air charge temps for higher air density and thus more power. Finally, the twin-screw concept uses less engine power to drive it, resulting in lower parasitic losses and more power to the rear wheels.

The third basic type of supercharger, the centrifugal, is much smaller in size. It uses an impeller or compressor wheel spinning as fast as 50,000 rpm to draw air in and then force it out radially into a circular scroll. Since this configuration is similar to a turbocharger, the centrifugal supercharger has been described as a belt-driven turbocharger. (Turbos are driven by exhaust gasses.)

One advantage of a centrifugal unit is in the package size, since it can fit under the hood as part of the accessory drive system, usually with no changes in the bodywork, except perhaps to redirect the airflow more efficiently. Another significant difference from positive displacement blowers is that the centrifugal unit provides less boost pressure at low engine speeds. (Which can be an advantage, since no piston modifications are required to prevent engine knock.)

On the other hand, since a centrifugal unit’s airflow is not fixed and increases with the square of its shaft rpm, it really comes alive at higher engine revs. So an engine with a centrifugal blower might feel stock at first, but gets bigger as you go faster. It sometimes seems like the speedometer rises quicker than the tach. Several popular makes of centrifugal superchargers include Paxton, Powerdyne, ProCharger, Rotrex and Vortech.
Which type of supercharger is right for your engine and vehicle? That will depend on a number of variables, but generally speaking, a centrifugal supercharger is ideal for a quick-revving, lighter vehicle with a manual transmission, while the positive displacement blower excels on a larger vehicle with an automatic transmission.
Both types can produce prodigious amounts of power, but at different areas of the power band. When looking at a supercharger, one shouldn’t be concerned only with peak horsepower numbers. Unlike race cars, performance cars aren’t driven frequently at the peak power range, so that can be a misleading figure.

Whatever the type, all superchargers benefit from the use of an intercooler to reduce heat during compression. A decrease in air intake temperature (using either an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchanger) provides a denser intake charge to the engine and allows more air and fuel to be combusted per engine cycle, increasing the output of the

engine. In addition, a cooler intake charge allows for higher boost levels without detonation for more power.
Of course, to keep up with a higher airflow, the fuel system needs to be modified. On an EFI engine, that usually means bigger injectors and reprogramming of the engine computer. The condition and mileage on the engine should be evaluated as well, to make sure the internals can withstand higher cylinder pressures. Also, when you add boost to an engine you are essentially adding compression. Regardless of supercharger style, there is a boost limit with 92- to 93-octane pump gas before detonation occurs, resulting in engine damage. So be wary of huge horsepower claims on pump gas, since they’re simply not sustainable within the detonation limits of most production engines.


Article Courtesy of Reincarmagazine.

Fire in the Hole. Spark Plug Selection

Fire in the Hole. Spark Plug Selection

They seem simple on the outside; just some wires for conducting spark. Simple as running to the parts store, grabbing some performance wires and finished — beer time. While this will work just fine for many vehicles, you might want to take a second look if your application is any more complex than a 60-year-old pickup.

More than just a wire

The job of a spark plug wire is simple: conduct the amount of current necessary to bridge the spark plug gap and trigger adequate fuel burn. Maximizing fuel burn is the key to optimizing engine performance, but there’s more to it than just delivering the most charge.

A spark plug wire can have up to seven different layers, cluing you in that there’s more going on than meets the eye. The outer layer of the wire is made from silicone and available in many different colors. All too often, a wire set is bought on appearance alone, but the silicone layer is designed to protect the wire from abrasion, heat, moisture and corrosion. A layer of braided fiberglass is next, and it provides strength to the wire and helps secure plug ends, preventing them from coming off when you pull on the wire instead of the terminal. The next layer is insulation, usually a silicone type, which is another layer of heat defense and prevents the escape of any electrical charge that has leaked through. Wrapping the braided core is a suppression layer that can vary by brand. It is the primary insulator, keeping electrical current from leaving the core and protecting it from any outside charges.

Fire In The Hole B5

The problem

The original solution for conducting spark followed the same method we use to conduct most anything else, solid wire. This method was simple and provided low-resistance conducting, but caused some problems as electrical systems advanced. The current flow of each individual charge passing through the wire creates a magnetic field, which is switched on and off as each charge passes through. This results in an electromagnetic emission that can interfere with nearby electronic systems. The resulting radio frequency interference (RFI) was picked up by car antennas and heard through radios. In modern electrical systems, RFI can cause faulty sensor readings and interfere with solenoids and modules.

The OEM fix

The first solution for reducing RFI was the incorporation of a resistor on the wire end, reducing current flow and RFI. The logical next step was to turn the spark plug wire itself into a resistor by designing a completely new core.

Most OEM wires are the carbon-core type. Carbon-core wires replace the solid-wire core with a nylon or Kevlar core with embedded carbon fiber. Resistance is both the upside and downside of the carbon-core wire. It limits the current flow in the wire as a resistor, which keeps RFI down, but also limits the amount of current that reaches the spark plug. Carbon-core wires are a cost-effective solution for manufacturers, but their high resistance (over 10,000 ohms/ft. in some cases) is a limiting factor in performance applications, and carbon cores tend to be fragile and fail more often.

If you’ve upgraded your vehicle to make more power than stock, it’s recommended that you upgrade your plug wires. For a given cylinder displacement, all performance upgrades must increase cylinder pressure or rpm. With increasing cylinder pressures, you need increasing electrical current to bridge the spark plug gap and trigger complete combustion. This is the point when wire resistance is no longer your friend.

Solid core

While we’ve made solid-core wires sound like an antiquated solution, they’re still used today in many high-performance applications. The core in this type of wire is usually made from braided stainless steel or copper, which conducts current very well and has the lowest possible resistance numbers. This allows them to transfer the most electrical charge to the plug and make the most power. However, they do not suppress RFI and can’t be used with modern electronic systems. Generally, these types of wires are only used with high-performance engines using a magneto, or a points-and-condenser-type ignition.

Spiral core

The most common performance plug wire is the spiral-core type. Spiral-core wires start with a nonconductive core of nylon or Kevlar, which has an alloy wire tightly coiled around it. A coating is then applied as another layer of RFI suppression. This form has less resistance than the carbon-core wire, but produces less RFI than the solid-core wire. Spiral-core wires usually have resistance figures under 50 ohms/ft. and will help you get the most out of an upgraded engine with any sort of modern electronics.

So what should I buy?

Armed with this info and a basic knowledge of your vehicle’s electronic systems, it should be fairly easy to decide what plug wires are right for your project. The name of the game is obviously to have the least resistance possible, but the type of electronic systems in your vehicle is really the limiting factor. Good-condition OEM wires are perfectly adequate for (mostly) stock vehicles. These wires usually have around 3,000 ohms/ft. of resistance and up. As a bare minimum, you’ll want to stay above 500 ohm/ft. with a stock vehicle. If you’ve done some performance mods, it’s time to upgrade to a spiral-core wire to deal with increased cylinder pressures. Good spiral-core wires can have less than 50 ohms/ft. of resistance. A solid-core wire can measure virtually 0 ohms/ft. and is the best performer in theory, but the lack of RFI suppression limits its use to old-fashioned ignition systems.

Article Courtesy of RCN Mag

Classic Mustang Coyote Swap Guide

Classic Mustang Coyote Swap Guide

It’s gotten easier  to drop a modern Coyote engine fitted to a vintage Mustang, Fox body Mustang and Restomod project. and there’s no argument that the 5.0L dual overhead cam (DOHC) from the 2011 to 2017 Mustang GT, affectionately known as the “Coyote” modular V-8, is great.

So with Over 435 hp without the use of a supercharger,  The Coyote’s cylinder head design, camshafts, and trick electronic valve timing control (each cam independently controlled) meant this new modular not only made good power, but actually had usable torque down low, something the Mustang was missing since its pushrod days.

The Coyote is a wide engine to fit into the engine bay. There are several schools of thought here, including all-new front suspension/crossmember systems that remove the shock towers completely, or strut-based front suspensions that require the very top of the shock tower to be retained, but the rest can be trimmed back for engine clearance. The strut-based systems are a bolt-in, though cutting and welding is required for trimming the shock towers, whereas the complete front suspension conversions usually require a fair amount of welding and chassis prep. If your front framerails are rusted out or you have other structural issues a full front subframe conversion might be an option for you, or a complete perimeter frame conversion.

Once you have your Coyote 5.0L in place and the last few issuesis to actually getting it wired up to run. You’ll need to figure out cooling system routing and plumbing, engine inlet routing, and if you are going to add or adapt to your power steering, power brakes, and A/C, and if so, how to accomplish that.

Lastly, you have the transmission decision. The Coyote can be fitted with numerous manual and automatic transmission options. Most are a direct bolt in with the proper installation kit or adapter from several performance transmission resources, which we’ll go over in the captions. So fear not! A Coyote 5.0L swap is becoming as popular an engine swap as ever and it gets easier by the day as new products aimed at helping the swap become a reality in your driveway hit the market.

Coyote with Power Steering Only

First thing’s first, you need the Coyote 5.0L engine.

Coyote Crate Engine Supercharger

If you’re looking for a little more go-power, A Supercharged Coyote 5.0L crate engine is available we are a master warehouse  of Edelbrock.  Go directly to this link for the 700 HP Coyote Street Beast


For transmission you’ll first need to decide if you want to go manual or automatic.
The  Tremec TKO-series transmission are available these with carbon-fiber rings to allow the higher rpm shifting the Coyote is capable of. A low-profile top plate conversion also allows easy installation of the TKO without modifying the transmission tunnel. This Coyote kit includes crossmember, bellhousing, clutch, fluid, fasteners, and more. More Details on the 5 Speed Kit Here Shown here is the Tremec Magnum six-speed kit. he late-model GT500 Mustang six-speed in an early Mustang means having to cut the top of transmission tunnel, change out or remove the floor support, and more to obtain the correct driveline angle.  Most go with the 5 speed for an easier swap, plus the 6 speed does not often get utilized.


4R70W Coyote Automatic

When it comes to automatic transmissions . Yes, the venerable  C4 three-speed automatic will bolt up to your Coyote with the proper bolt-on bellhousing but the 4 speed 4R70W is more ideal everything you need to get it behind your Coyote, including Smart Shift electronics, manual lever sensor, block plate, flexplate, converter, and attaching bolts. Fitting the more modern overdrive automatics into a vintage Mustang is nothing new.

The Coyote is a drive-by-wire modular engine, the AOD and its throttle valve (TV) shift control cable (which usually attaches to a mechanical throttle body lever) are not suitable for this application. A constant pressure valvebody, which does not require the TV cable operation, would rectify this issue, but you’re honestly better off stepping up to the 4R70W.

With the 4R70W, Ford really built one tough overdrive automatic. Learning from the AOD’s weaknesses and improving on its strengths, the 4R70W easily handles 700 lb-ft of torque in stock build configuration and features a wide-ratio gear set (the 70 and W in the name respectively). Add an aftermarket controller  you can easily adjust shift points, shift feel, converter lockup, and more by simply turning a knob. No more dropping a valvebody a dozen times tweaking springs and hoping you got it right. You can purchase the entire  4R70W conversion kit here  Its quickly becoming the “go to” automatic overdrive swap choice even behind traditional pushrod engines.

The Ford 6R80 six-speed automatic found behind the Coyote in the 2011-2017 Mustang is an option, albeit one that will require some floorpan surgery and a way to control it. The floorpan modification is nothing a good fabricator can’t make once the driveline angle is set, but know that the taller/wider transmission tunnel might make fitting a stock console or even stock carpeting/seats an issue. The biggest problem with the 6R80 is controlling it. there is currently a plug-and-play standalone controller for the 20011-2014 coyote.


As mentioned earlier, wiring the Coyote is a breeze if you use the  Control Pack kit. It includes the body harness, PCM with special calibration, inlet ducting and air box, drive-by-wire throttle pedal, oxygen sensors, and fuse box. Once connecting the harness to the crate engine and the pedal you literally have about six wire leads to connect to power the engine.


If you look back at our lead image to our story you’ll see the Ford Performance Coyote crate engine does not come packaged with any drive accessories. Ford offers an alternator kit with drive belt for the Coyote  which includes the Boss 302 alternator, high-tension belt tensioner, and serpentine drive belt.

If you’re running manual steering and no A/C, the alternator kit is all you need, but if you’re looking to go all out with full accessories then you’ll need to investigate an aftermarket arrangement. One such setup is this Front Runner system. The kit uses the industry standard Sanden A/C compressor and GM Type II power steering pump along with custom brackets and spring-loaded belt tensioner to offer a very compact setup on the passenger side of the engine.


Getting the Coyote down on the mounts for many of the IFS setups means swapping out the production rear sump oil pan for a front sump pan. Canton Racing has the perfect answer with its new Coyote swap pan for vintage applications. Check with your suspension provider first though to see if they have a preferred pan that fits their suspension, or if the stock pan will work with their crossmember.

Long tube Coyote Headers

Some builders use the stock iron manifolds for the beginning of their exhaust fabrication with an engine swap. The stock manifolds on the Coyote, however, are a sort-of Tri-Y setup and interfere with the chassis and steering. The best solution right now is a set of swap headers, with the Coyote swap headers for 1965-1973 Mustangs from Doug’s Headers .  and are designed to fit the TCI and Heidts Pro-G IFS systems, though they may work with other suspensions.

Phantom Fuel pump kit

To feed that Coyote 5.0L’s EFI you’re going to need to completely revamp your vintage Mustang’s fuel system. The stock single feed line is not EFI capable, not to mention you’ll need a return line to the tank, a high-pressure EFI pump, and more. You have a few options here, one being the Aeromotive Phantom fuel system. In a nutshell, it is a pump, mounting bracket, and sump in one unit. Simply cut a hole in your tank and drop it in. Aeromotive offers the Phantom by itself and as a kit with EFI regulator, fittings, filter, and more. Simply add the length of -6 AN hose you need and an adapter fitting for the fuel rail and you’re all set.

Coyote fuel return

This is the Aeromotive fuel rail adapter for the modular engine like the Coyote. Simply slip the adapter into the open fuel rail on your crate engine until it locks in place. The opposite end is machined with a male -6 AN fitting for a standard AN hose connection. The Coyote, being returnless fuel from the factory, only has one fuel rail connection, so the fuel line routing needs to be set up so that the fuel return line comes off of the fuel pressure regulator with just one pressure line connecting to the engine.


Cooling the Coyote 5.0L in your swap isn’t terribly difficult, you just need to understand the unique cooling hose routing of the Coyote and ensure you either use a degas tank or have your radiator fill point be the highest part of the cooling system.  Since the Coyote, and all modular engines for that matter, were designed to use an electric fan that’s what you’ll have to do as well—buying a radiator and fan combo is your best bet here. C&R Racing offers a Coyote swap radiator  (shown here with optional transmission and power steering coolers). The C&R-based unit bolts to existing core support holes and only requires two small holes to be drilled in the bottom of the support. We’ve also used custom-built units from Flex-a-lite for modular/Coyote builds as well with great results.


So you’ve figured out your engine and transmission choices and now you’re ready to go, tools in hand. If you haven’t noticed by now, actually fitting the Coyote into your Mustang is going to require some reconfiguring of the engine bay. A popular route is a new independent front suspension (IFS) that relocates the spring to the lower arm and eliminates the shock/spring towers, There are a number of companies that offer solutions  Total Cost Involved (TCI) Engineering. The TCI Engineering system welds into the front framerails and then the suspension pieces bolt to the new subframe, providing ample clearance. The Roadster Shop offers its own IFS that utilizes modern Corvette spindles, a splined antisway bar, and other high-end goodies for a suspension that not only allows Coyote fitment, but can easily tackle the road course as well.


Detroit Speed’s Aluma-Frame IFS is another, very capable IFS that can be considered as well and comes ready to fit the Coyote engine. The aluminum subframe structure bolts to the stock frame rails and sandwiches it after welding in the mounting plates. Detroit Speed’s instructions offer several part numbers for Coyote fitment, including headers, oil pan, and more.  Rod & Custom Motorsports was one of the first IFS manufacturers to offer a Coyote-specific IFS package and they now offer a righthand-drive configuration for those countries that require it.

While the dual A-arm IFS setups are a popular route, many Coyote swappers prefer a strut-based front suspension. With a strut IFS you do have to maintain the very top of the shock tower, as it is the mounting point for the top of the strut, but the remaining shock tower can be cut back/trimmed for engine fitment. As installed you can see the Coyote clears fine with the shock tower simply trimmed back.

Fatman Fabrications has an interesting offering for strut IFS builds. Its modular system uses a series of bolt on tubular supports and stamped metal panels to completely reform the engine bay and offer the maximum clearance for the wide Coyote. Bolt on engine mount adapters and firewall/core support bracing are included.


If you’re considering all-new suspension front and rear for your Coyote build then you might want to forego the typical suspension kits and upgrade to a full perimeter frame offering like those from the Roadster Shop and Schwartz Performance. Simply trim away your stock front shock towers and framerails, weld a few mounting tabs to your Mustang’s unibody, and bolt it down on this performance frame package.

Throttle pedal Coyote

The Control Pack drive-by-wire pedal will need to be mounted via a custom-fabricated mount. This is an earlier pedal shown installed here, but it gives you an idea of what needs to be done. This bracket was fabbed from steel sheet and bolts welded to it as mounting studs at the top and a nut for a bolt at the bottom.


One part of the Control Pack that you won’t use in a vintage Mustang conversion will be the airbox and possibly the inlet ducting. Depending upon accessory mounting and your engine bay you might be able to get an aftermarket cold air kit to work, like this JLT ( system shown here on a 2013 Coyote Mustang GT with a minimum of fuss.  Alternatively you can fab your own inlet tubing and add a mass air sensor mount and a filter to the end, as in the case of this Coyote install in a 1967 fastback. Several companies offer universal tubing, mass air sensor mounts, and filters. Gateway Classic Mustang offers a Coyote in a vintage Mustang cold air kit too, ready to go.


One area that can be a bit of an issue is the brake master cylinder. Due to the massive width of the Coyote 5.0L even using a manual brake master cylinder mounted directly to the firewall can be an issue, especially in 1965-1966 applications. This is due to the near flat mounting surface of the 1965-1966 firewall versus the recessed mounting area found on the 1967-1970 firewall. The answer is to move the master cylinder over roughly 1 3/4 inches. This will require widening the pedal support, adding length to the brake pedal arm pin, and moving the clutch pedal over as well, if it’s a manual trans car. You can see in these photos,, how they moved the master cylinder over and modified the brake pedal and support accordingly.  For the 1967-1970 firewall the master cylinder will bolt directly to the OE holes and should clear the cam cover. Ensure you use a master cylinder with outlets facing the inner fender and not toward the engine. Stang-Aholics uses this dual reservoir unit from ABS Power Brake in their swaps.


Speaking of power brakes, as you can imagine, there is no way you’re getting a traditional vacuum diaphragm booster in such a tight spot. We’ve used hydraulic assist units in previous builds, aka hydroboost, but they require power steering and some additional line plumbing, though they work great! A new, more compact option is a remote hydro-electric setup. Stang-Aholics uses this setup from ABS Power Brake that utilizes a small reservoir (you can see it on the inner fender in our lead photo), an electric pump, and a high-pressure accumulator to provide a true power brake pedal feel.


Most of the coolant hoses come with the harness kit.