Author: tdmotion

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Want an electric fuel pump to last forever and work right? We’re going to show you how to install it and wire it up the correct way!

OK, let’s talk about electric fuel pumps. There is a lot of confusion and misunderstandings about them. There is also a lot of potential danger when people don’t do it right. The reason is, they don’t know the right way to plumb them in or wire them.

So, let’s break it down:

When do you need an electric fuel pump?

Is an electric fuel pump reliable?

How do you keep an electric fuel pump safe?

How should you wire an electric fuel pump?

Deference between Mechanical and Electric Fuel Pump.

When do you need an electric fuel pump?

Usually, a preferable mechanical Fuel pump over an “aftermarket” electric pump. They tend to be more reliable. But, sometimes that won’t work.

In my old ’47 Chevy, the engine I had swapped in had an issue. The cross member was in the way of the mechanical Fuel pump. So, I ran an electrical pump and had many trouble free miles.

Sometimes, people will plumb them inline with a mechanical fuel pump. They add more volume and pressure. This is more for a full on drag car though.

Is an electric fuel pump reliable?

Yes, they are. Hey, there’s about a billion cars running around right now with them. All new cars have them.

With aftermarket pumps though, YOU have to install them. That’s where some problems can start.

We’re here to show you the right way to do it!

So, what do I use? For a stock or performance street car, I like these Facet/Purolator pumps from Napa. They are quiet and work well.

A lot of people complain about some aftermarket pumps being junk. But usually, there is a reason they go out. It’s often the way the person installed it. There are a few things that kill them.

-Do not run them dry.

-Always run a filter before the pump.

-Keep them as close to the tank as you can. An electric fuel pump pushes fuel much better than they can pull it.

-Mount them away from heat sources such as exhaust.

-Electrical power to them is everything. You must have the correct wire size to it. A relay is preferable for users. You may be getting the proper voltage to it, but not enough amps. Remember, the longer the run the more the power will drop.

-Also, the grounding of it is critical. Many people will scrape the area where they mount it or even add a ground wire. But, they forget that they don’t have a good ground from the body to the frame or to the engine. This will kill pumps real quick.

Tip: Screw into metal to the ground, not through it. “Star” washers are your friends…

Run a ground wire to the front. Many professional auto electricians will run ground wires. They use from a unit to a common grounding point in an older car, like in a fiberglass car. That way, there is no question if your ground is good, and it’s only 1 extra wire.

Once, a buddy and I were going to a show in his ’26 Buick roadster. It workers built it much like a T-bucket and it had an electric fuel pump. Its wires were incorrect manner and grounded by screwing into the frame by the pump. We were about 50 miles out, and the pump quit.

Hmmmm…

What happened was the older metal of the frame.  It wasn’t carrying the current well enough. The pump overheated and shut down.

It’s fortunate enough, he had some extra wire. which we screwed one end to the ground wire at the back. And ran it to the front where we attached it to the negative side of the battery.

The pump started back up after it cooled down and we were trouble-free all the way there and back. When we got home he wired it in correct and never had a problem after that.

But they don’t have to be.

If something lets go in your engine bay like a fuel line, the engine will quit in a dramatic way. But, if you don’t have a way to automatically shut off your electric fuel pump. you will keep spraying raw fuel all over your hot engine and wiring.

Also, in a crash, your pump can continue to run feeding a fire if you don’t have a way to stop it.

Note: Never mount an electric fuel pump in an enclosed area such as the trunk or interior space.

OK, so how do I do it right?

The easiest way is to use an oil pressure switch. The switch will stop the pump whenever the oil pressure in the engine goes away. So, whenever the engine is off, the pump will turn off in a very automatic.

Some switches do that. But how do I get the pump to run when I’m trying to start the motor and the oil pressure’s not up yet?

You use a three prong switch like this Standard Ignition PS-64:

The switch will also let the pump run when you hit the starter because the engine doesn’t have oil pressure yet.

One wire goes to the pump, one to the start circuit, and the other to the ignition circuit. So, when there is no oil pressure, the switch connects START to PUMP, and as soon as you start cranking it runs the pump. When the oil pressure comes up, the switch connects IGN to PUMP, for normal running. When oil pressure goes away (because you hit that rock and tore the pan off the engine. For example) it again connects START to PUMP and disconnects IGN from PUMP, so the pump shuts off.

Don’t worry, it’s easy to wire.

How should you wire an electric fuel pump?

Since you need the fuel pump back by the tank. At the same level as the fuel or lower, that usually means you’re going to have a long run of wire. So, you need to have a good wiring going back to it. Wiring that will carry enough current. Running the current through your ignition switch isn’t a good idea. since it’s already overloaded, and will kill the voltage. That will kill the pump. It’s nice for convenience. That’s why a relay is good to use.

It lets the ignition switch activate the pump, while keeping the power from having to run through it. It will keep your pump alive and happy because it is getting full voltage. A good way is to mount a relay beside a power distribution block on the firewall. (see Improved Power Circuit) and get the power from there.

Here is a diagram on how to wire and plumb your pump:

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5 Things You Should Know Before Using a High-Output Alternator

1 wire Alternator

 

So you’re considering swapping out your stock alternator.

There are plenty of good reasons to make the leap to a high-output alternator, but you’ll need to do a little bit of homework first. Luckily, we’ve got smart friends to help us with our studies, so you can ace the topic. In conjunction with the alternator experts at Powermaster and MSD, we’ve compiled the five things you need to know before upgrading to a high-amp, or high-output alternator.

This starts with the most basic of questions:

Do You Really Need a High-Output Alternator?

If you’ve got a basic, stock vehicle, chances are you don’t need a high-output alternator. Most factory alternators are rated at 65 to 100 amps and are capable of handling your vehicle’s basic necessities, such as headlights, gauges, fuel pumps, A/C, etc. These alternators also typically come with a 10 to 15 percent reserve to handle additional accessories.

However, many of our readers don’t have a stock vehicle. For example, you may have a custom-built street rod with a unique combination of accessories. Or you may have a high-end stereo system or a race vehicle with an array of on-board electronics. As the electrical load of all these accessories add up, you may find yourself in need of a higher-amperage alternator.

But how do you know?

There are a few ways to figure out whether you need to upgrade your alternator. A few telltale signs are dim headlights, poor stereo system performance, or an alternator that simply wears out quickly. You can also check your electrical load using an ammeter. Simply connect the ammeter in series with the battery’s ground terminal (with the engine turned off), switch each electrical component on and off, and note their amperage draws. Add up the total electrical draw and compare with your alternator’s rated output. The output should be 50 percent greater than the draw.

One final way to estimate your vehicle’s electrical load is to check the accessory fuses. The amp ratings, although slightly higher than the highest draw of each component, will give you a good estimate of your vehicle’s electrical load.

What Amperage Do You Need?

That depends on the current draw, along with any future accessories you plan to add. For that reason, we’ve supplied a list of some common accessories and their amp draw:

Accessory: Amp Draw:
Air Conditioner 20-21
Audio Power Amplifiers 10-70
Back-up Lamps 3-4
Cigarette Lighter 10-12
CD/Tuner with amp 7-14
CD/Player/Tuner without amp 2.5-5
Clock 0.3
Dome Light 1-2
Electric Cooling Fans 6-15
Head Lamp Dimmer 2
Head Lamp (Low Beam) 8-10
Head Lamp (High Beam) 13-15
Heater Defroster 6-15
Horn 10-20
Ignition 1.5-4
Ignition (Racing) 8-36
Instrument Panel 0.7-1.5
Lamp, Gauges 1.5-3.5
Lamps, License Plate 1.5-2
Lamps, Parking 1.5-2
Lamps, Side Marker 1.3-3
Lamps, Tail 5-7
Nitrous Oxide Solenoid 5-8
Power Windows Defroster 1-30
Power Seats 25-50
Power Windows 20-30
Power Antenna 6-10
Pumps, Electric Fuel 3-8
Starter Solenoid 10-12
Voltage Regulators (1 Wire) 0.3-0.5

How Much is Too Much?

You can never have too much amperage when it comes to alternators; therefore, you never have to worry about choosing an alternator with too high of a rated output. Here’s why:

Amperage is basically the amount of electrical current your alternator can supply. And it basically operates off of supply and demand. That is, your alternator will only supply the amount of amperage a particular component demands—and no more. So high-output alternators will not harm your components or charging system, no matter how high you go with the amps.

What Gauge Wire Do You Need?

8 Gauge Wire

A performance alternator really doesn’t require much in the way of modifications. However, Powermaster and other alternator manufacturers do recommend you replace both the ground straps and charge wire. Keep in mind the factory cables weren’t designed to handle the juice of a higher-output alternator, and can restrict the flow of electricity.

In the case of the charge wire, you really can’t go too large. However, here is a chart that matches cable gauge size to total amperage:

Amps Up to 4′ 4′-7′ 7′-10′ 10′-13′ 13′-16′ 16′-19′ 19′-22′ 22′-28′
0-20 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8
20-35 12 10 8 8 8 6 6 4
35-50 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 4
50-65 8 8 6 4 4 4 4 2
65-85 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 0
85-105 6 6 4 2 2 2 2 0
105-125 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 0
125-150 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0

What is Pulley Ratio (and Why Should You Care)?

In short, pulley ratio is a comparison between the crankshaft pulley diameter and alternator pulley diameter. This ratio is derived by dividing the crank pulley diameter by the alternator pulley. For example, a 6-inch crank pulley with 2-inch alternator pulley will yield a 3:1 pulley ratio.

The ratio has a direct effect on how fast the alternator spins.

In order to understand the importance of pulley ratio, you first need to understand the “power curve” involved with alternator output. Although the alternator’s output is dependent upon engine speed, it follows a unique curve. At idle, small changes in the alternator’s speed can make a big difference, so the pulley ratio becomes very important.

Powermaster supplies its alternators with pulleys matched to the alternator’s power curve. The company follows this common rule of thumb:

  • Street use = 3:1 ratio or slightly higher
  • Drag racing = 1.75:1 ratio
  • Circle track = 1:1 ratio

So why should you care?

Because differing ratios can affect performance, you should take care to maintain the same pulley ratio if you decide to use dress-up pulley sets. A mismatched pulley ratio and alternator can lead to big problems, especially at idle where alternator performance is critical. That’s because these high-amp units typically lose output under 2,400 rotor rpm. Rotor rpm are a factor of pulley ratio multiplied by engine speed. So, if you have a pulley ratio of 2:1 multiplied by an engine speed of 870, you’ll get a rotor rpm of 1,827.

At 1,827 rpm, you’ll see a significant drop in alternator output.

Again, the ideal ratio depends on your application (street, drag racing, circle track racing), but you need to understand the effects of altering pulley ratio.

With all this in mind, you’re ready to choose the right alternator for your application.

Article Courtesy of David Fuller

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The 2015-2016 5.0 Coyote is impressive by itself but fast is never fast enough!! 2017  Mustang Coyote GT features the Aluminator Ford 5.2 Voodoo Crate Engine series. The 5.2-liter Aluminator XS. It is Capable of producing  570+ horsepower. The 5.2 Ford Crate Engine Aluminator XS offers an aftermarket option. For enthusiasts looking for enhanced power train options.

5-2-short-block

How does the Ford 5.2 Voodoo Crate Engine Aluminator XS differ from the engine in the GT350?  

Quite Significant, the Aluminator 5.2L XS combines all the FPP highest-performing. Coyote engine parts built since 2011 into one package:

  • Ford Performance Parts Cobra Jet 5.0L 4V intake manifold. Engineered for the Mustang Coyote cobra jet. Drag car  allows for an extra 20-25hp @ 8000 RPM
  • Ford performance Parts 65-mm Cobra Jet place aluminum choke body M-9926-CJ65. A dual 65mm throttle body that allows better flow over 5.0L or 5.2L choke bodies.
  • Ford Performance Parts with full CNC ported Ford 5.2 Voodoo Crate Engine cylinder heads with custom high lift (5.0L firing order). The camshafts allow better flow and the correct timing for a cross-plane crankshaft.
  • High-performance timing chain tensioners
  • Custom H-beam connecting rods & forged crankshaft. A cross-plane crankshaft is there to keep GT350 exclusive with the flat-plane crankshaft.
  • Includes 200 amp alternator

What do you see the intended use of this engine for Mustang enthusiasts?

This engine you can use as a crate engine in high-end resto-mod. Which builds or used as an engine upgrade for customers building track-day cars.

How did Ford Mustang go about developing the Ford 5.2 Voodoo Crate Engine Aluminator XS?

FPP engineers made slight modifications to work with the cross-plane crank.  As a result, the Aluminator XS is a capable, high-revving. One thing we set out to do with the new Aluminator kept the flat-plane crankshaft exclusive to GT350. Doing that means integrating a cross-plane crankshaft which was a challenge. Because it changes the firing order which impacts valve timing.

ALUMINATOR  XS 5.2 Ford CRATE ENGINE FEATURES

coyote-xtreme

Maximum Coyote Crate – 570+ Horsepower

  • 5.2 Ford Crate Engine – 317 cubic inches
  • 12:1 compression ratio (nominal)
  • Ford Performance 5.2L GT350 aluminum block
  • Mahle® hard anodized forged pistons with a low friction coating
  • Manley® H-beam connecting rods with ARP2000 bolts
  • Lightweight aluminum cylinder block features cross-bolted main bearing caps
  • Camshafts Camshaft kit – M-6550-M52A
  • M-6675-M50BR 12 quart rear sump oil pan features optimized oil drain back and windage tray to control oil and improve high-rpm performance
  • M-6600-50CJ High-Performance oil pump with billet steel gears
  • M-9424-M50CJ Cobra Jet tuned intake manifold
  • M-9926-CJ65 dual bore throttle body
  • M-9593-LU47 47 lb. fuel injectors
  • Ford Performance GT350 fully CNC ported aluminum heads M-6049-M52 & M-6050-M52
  • M-12A227-CJ13 high RPM pulse ring
  • M-8600-M50BALT alternator and mount kit
  • M-6P067-M50BK black coil covers
  • M-12405-M50A heat range zero (0) spark plugs
  • M-6731-FL820 oil filter


Flat Out: Inside the Shelby GT350 Mustang’s Engine

On the outside, it may look like your garden variety 5.0-liter. Mustang Coyote V8 found in the engine bay of a Ford Mustang GT or F-150, but appearances can be deceiving. “This is a new engine top to bottom,” said Eric Ladner, engine program supervisor at Ford. The list of changes and enhancements compared to the standard five-oh are exhaustive.

2016-ford-shelby-gt350-crankshaft

And as you’ve no doubt heard, the most important update of all is the crankshaft. Engineers eschewed a traditional cross-plane arrangement for one that’s flat. Rather than have the throws arranged at 90-degree intervals, the Shelby GT350’s are set 180-degrees. Flat-plane cranks are common in supercars like Ferraris. Where most performances are a top concern. But this is the first time Ford’s ever offered one and they’ve been mass-producing V8s for more than eight decades, ever since old Henry’s first flathead rolled out of the Rouge foundry in 1932. Ladner said, “Flat-plane cranks are in inherent lighter than their cross-plane counterparts.” This is because bulky counterweights are not required to balance them. But he also cautioned that crankshafts account for less than 15 percent of an engine’s rotating mass. So this is hardly their only benefit.

Beyond all of this, they “[allow] all the cylinders breathe the same,” said Christian. Which makes tuning the Ford 5.2 Voodoo Crate Engine much easier so they can run it closer to the ragged edge and get more power. Additionally, the Shelby GT350’s crank is made from forged steel for extra strength. It’s been “gun-drilled,” meaning holes have been punched through each of its throws to further cut mass. These openings also allow the adjacent bays inside the block to breathe together. So further reducing parasitic drag.

Bored and Stoked. Another major change in Mustang Coyote V8s is this power plant’s internal dimension. Giving it that extra 0.2-liters of lung capacity is a larger bore and longer stroke. The 5.2’s digits clock in at 94 millimeters by 93 millimeters. If you’re curious, a regular 5.0-liter measures 92.2 by 92.7.

2016-ford-shelby-gt350-intake-manifold

Instead of traditional cylinder liners, Shelby’s engine uses a plasma transferred wire-arc technology. Which saves a significant amount of mass. Additionally, its block is unique to this application. But the bore spacing and deck height are identical to a five-oh so the same machine tools you can use. The GT350’s engines will be assembled on Ford’s niche line in Romeo. Michigan; standard Mustang Coyotes are built in Windsor, Ontario.

These rotating components squeeze incoming air and fuel with a frighteningly high 12-to-1 compression ratio and, that’s ok. Thanks to exhaustive computer modeling the engine run just fine on 93 octane pump gas and it doesn’t even have direct injection. According to Ladner this feature “wasn’t necessary to meet our Ford performance targets,” plus DI systems are heavier and add cost.

Moving into the basement, this 350 Crate engine features a composite oil pan. So saves more weight, about 20 percent in fact. But it’s hardly a sump; it also contains an integrated pickup and windage tray, all in one unit. A higher-capacity oil pump ensures there’s plenty of lubrication at all times.

Breathe Deeply

Taking an elevator ride topside, the Shelby engine breathes through an 87-millimeter throttle-body, the largest Ford’s ever fitted, as well as an open-element air filter. Beyond this, there’s an all-new intake manifold. Its runners are both longer and larger in diameter than the ones found in the dearly departed Boss 302. This configuration bolsters torque production across the rev range and all told, 90 percent of peak twist is available at just 3,450 RPM.

The cylinder heads are where all the magic happens in modern engines and the 5.2-liter V8’s have received special attention. For starters, they’ve been strategically lightened and weigh about 6 percent less than the ones that cap off a standard Mustang Coyote block. Beyond this, the 350 Crate engine enlarged bores allowed for even bigger valves to help get copious amounts of fuel and air into the cylinders and speedily evacuate spent exhaust gasses once the mixture’s gone off.

Overall this 350 and Ford 5.2 Voodoo Crate engine is lighter than the 5.0-liter V8 on which it’s based and it puts out A LOT more power. And despite spinning beyond 8,000 RPM it has to meet the same durability requirements as any other Ford Mustang product. Accordingly, it will be backed by the same warranty, so don’t be afraid to tickle that redline.